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干细胞移植一直是老龄化研究人员的兴趣所在,and,在新的study,他们通过使用干细胞疗法成功地延长了小鼠的寿命。虽然这是以前实现的,this experiment was more refined than older studies and sheds new light on the potential of tissue regeneration through stem cells.

最大寿命的显著延长可以被认为是任何干预都是针对衰老的核心特征,或者,在寿命小幅度增加的情况下,至少间接地影响它。

Through bone marrow transplants,研究人员已经显著提高了老鼠的寿命,并相信它们直接针对衰老过程[1]。鉴于干细胞衰竭是衰老的标志,它们可能是正确的。

While we know a fair amount about tissue-resident stem cells and their role in tissue regeneration and repair,the part that circulating stem cells in our blood play is less well understood.这些研究人员利用未分化的干细胞进行了先前的研究,尚未成为身体特定细胞类型的细胞,他们发现这些细胞根据其环境分化成专门的细胞类型。

这支持了通过注射未分化的干细胞或可能通过骨髓移植等途径进行组织再生的可能性。在某些情况下,骨髓移植不仅可以治疗血液疾病,还可以治疗其他疾病,如粘液多糖症,senile hearing loss,大疱性表皮松解,癌症。

许多以前的研究表明,干细胞移植似乎可以延缓衰老[2-4];然而,这项新的研究在一些方面与这些实验不同。These researchers have used a considerably larger amount of transplant material,由于小鼠菌株和近亲繁殖,供体和被移植者的基因密切相关。移植细胞未暴露于化疗药物或辐射下,which are both harmful to cells and can inducecellular senescence,这也是我们变老的另一个原因。

The researchers wanted to find out what effect bone marrow stem cell transplantation would have on maximum lifespan in mice that had reached an age at which half of their population had already died from age-related diseases.This would be around 70-80 years old in human terms,an age at which the number of stem cells in the bone marrow is a tenth of what it was at birth.

Normally,骨髓干细胞移植前进行清髓性调节,a medical procedure that consists of either chemotherapy or radiation sufficient enough to destroy the myeloid cells other than red blood cells and platelets,thus paving the way for new bone marrow material to be implanted.然而,with this new method,替代材料可以在不进行清髓性调节的情况下进行移植。

等到老鼠长大,骨髓中的干细胞储备严重耗尽,其寿命延长了28%。这是一个很大的数目。

摘要

这项工作的目的是确定年轻骨髓(BM)非增殖性同基因移植对成年实验动物(小鼠)最大寿命的影响。要做到这一点,transplantation of 100 million nucleated cells from BM of young syngeneic donors to an old non-ablated animal was performed at the time when half of the population had already died.因此,最大寿命(MLS)提高了28±5%,and the survival time from the beginning of the experiment increased 2.8 ± 0.3-fold.移植后6个月BM嵌合体为28%。

For the first time rejuvenation therapy was started so late,当一半的动物已经死亡时,and the high (31 ± 5%) extension in maximal lifespan of the remaining animals was found.Such significant effect on the maximal lifespan,与平均寿命波动不同,indicates that BM transplantation affects the intrinsic aging mechanism.The life-extending effect was significantly stronger than in earlier works with similar design (no irradiation or chemotherapy,no hereditary pathologies in recipients,advanced age at the start of the BM administration) because of (i) the larger amount of transplanted material and (ii) the close relation of the donors and recipients.这一结果对于老年人(70-80岁)的临床适应是令人鼓舞的。

The observed lifespan extension was accompanied by extension of an active and healthy life period.

骨髓移植后受者骨髓嵌合体显著(28%的有核骨髓细胞来源于供体),且永久性(移植后至少持续6个月)。说明再生不仅是由旁分泌作用引起的,而且是由直接细胞置换引起的。

Conclusion

A number of researchers support the notion of a top-down approach to tissue regeneration,such as using bone marrow transplants to replace age-related stem cell losses.这些结果清楚地表明,小鼠的再生不仅是由于干细胞释放的有益信号,这有助于愈合和减少发炎,但也正是由于直接补充池中丢失的干细胞而导致的。

也许这项特别研究最重要的一点是,它是专门针对那些已经失去了大量可用骨髓干细胞池的老年小鼠进行的。通过弥补这些损失,这些研究人员正直接研究衰老过程,结果是健康寿命的大幅度延长。

This has implications for treating aged humans who are 70-80 years old,它支持这样一种观点,即如果的确,存在这样一种情况,即人们无法通过基于修复的衰老方法有效地恢复活力。

由于他们的研究,these researchers wish to see the rapid implementation of non-ablative stem cell transplantation into the clinic not only for the treatment of pathology but also for rejuvenation in older people.在这种情况下,与年龄相关的干细胞衰竭使新的替换干细胞的条件更加有利,所以让我们希望这很快成为护理的标准。

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[1] Kovina,M.,KhodarovichY.,KarnaukhovA.,KrasheninnikovM.,KovinA.L.,加泽夫S.……T(2019)。非清髓同种异体骨髓从幼鼠移植到老年小鼠后最大寿命延长和高骨髓嵌合体。遗传学前沿,,310.

〔2〕Kamminga,L.M.,van OsR.,Ausema,A.,Noache.J.,韦辛E.,DontjeB.,…& de Haan,G.(2005).连续移植后和正常老化期间造血干细胞功能受损。干细胞,二十三(1)82-92。

〔3〕李,J.,Zhang,Y.,& Liu,G.X.(2010).小鼠胎间充质干细胞移植抗衰老作用的实验研究盛立学宝:【中国生理学报】,62(1)79-85.

[4] Shen,J.,Tsai是的。T.DiMarco,n.名词M.,长,MA.,太阳X.唐L.(2011)。Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells from young donors delays aging in mice.科学报告,,67。

Category 新闻, 研究
关于作者

Steve Hill

作为科学作家和健康长寿的忠实倡导者,以及促进长寿的技术,Steve为社区提供了数百篇教育文章,访谈,and podcasts,帮助公众更好地了解老龄化及其动态变化的方法。他的资料可以在H+杂志上找到,Longevity reporter,今日心理学与奇点博客。He is a co-author of the book "Aging Prevention for All" – a guide for the general public exploring evidence-based means to extend healthy life (in press).
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